Servicio de Grúas en el Distrito Federal por Delegación
El remolque de vehículos o camiones o también conocido en latino america y México como servicio de grúas, es una industria especializada en el sector de transporte. En grúas df existen vehículos especializados para el traslado de vehículos simplemente conocidos como grúas, aunque este término es mucho mas amplio que el que se utiliza para remolcar automóviles.
Existen diferentes tipos de equipos de grúas, algunas conocidas como grúas de plataforma con equipos hidráulicos sujetos a una cama plana que se desliza sobre el camión hasta el nivel de piso y es accionado por unos pistones o gatos hidráulicos que con la ayuda de un malacate o “winch” permite subir un vehículo a la plataforma, así como un segundo vehículo que se arrastra a través de un wheel-lift o equipo de arrastre, ambos equipos tienen la ventaja de no dañar al carro remolcado. El término conocido como servicio de grúa se refiere siempre al traslado de vehículos. También están las clásicas grúas de arrastre que en vez de cama tienen un sistema de poleas para el traslado de unidades de mayor peso vehicular, los cuales ruedan sobre sus neumáticos traseros para disminuir el peso de carga y facilitar su traslado, en caso de que la suspensión o llantas traseras estén dañadas y el coche no pueda ser trasladado se utiliza un equipo llamado dolly que son unas llantas independientes que se sujetan al vehículo permitiendo ser llevado a pesar de los daños o bien para maniobras especiales.
Algunas grúas para autos pueden llevar desde 2 carros hasta 4 vehículos, sin embargo para llevar más de 4 vehículos se utiliza la grúa conocida como madrina, la cual puede llevar hasta 15 vehículos en un solo viaje, normalmente se utiliza para mover vehículos nuevos o siniestrados de una ciudad a otra. Normalmente constan de dos niveles en los cuales pueden transportar de 6 a 9 vehículos, rampas para mover los vehículos e irlos pasando a la parte superior o trasera, cadenas para sujetarlos con seguridad. Las camas del camión pueden tener rieles o guías para carga y mantener la estabilidad del transporte.
El traslado o remolque de vehículos es realizado por alguna de las siguientes razones:
- Traslado de autos accidentados o desmantelados a petición del dueño ( la mas común)
- Servicio de grúas a través del gobierno o sus agentes para vehículos abandonados o descompuestos que perjudiquen la vialidad pública
- Remolque de vehículos por cambio de domicilio de una ciudad a otra, donde por razones logísticas o de costo el dueño prefiere contratar el servicio de grúa foráneo
- Recuperación de automóviles por una agencia de crédito automotriz
- Como parte de incautación por autoridades de alguna ciudad cuando exista algún accidente vial y haya que llevarlo a un corralón para resguardo
En México existen diversas empresas públicas y privadas que ejercen esta actividad para las cuales existen tarifas o precios de grúa en el Distrito Federal, Estado de México,
Requests for service are placed to a dispatching center. Puede ser un servicio de grúa urgente o programado Some tow services communicate with drivers using wireless telephone equipment. In others, the dispatching center contacts an available tow truck driver via mobile radio or by sending a text message using a mobile data terminal. Recent technology includes the use of GPS and on board wireless equipment to dispatch drivers via an LCD screen receiver.
Some smaller towing companies, especially single-truck owner-operator outfits, may have only a single telephone and answering device for their “dispatch center.” Increasingly, this will just be a mobile phone for the operator on duty, or may be the main telephone number for an associated mechanic, who will then send the truck from the shop or call the operator’s mobile phone.
Dispatching networks exist for geographic automobile clubs, such as the British Royal Automobile Club, the American Automobile Association, and the Canadian Automobile Association. These organization primarily contract with many local tow truck operators (though they do have fleets of their own in some areas). The clubs will re-dispatch the requests from the club dispatch center to the local operators dispatch line, which, as above, may be a true dispatch center for larger tow fleets, or a simple business telephone line or mobile line for smaller operators. The club dispatch center will typically handle any follow-up needed on behalf of the customer, so that they do not need to track the multiple levels of dispatching.
Impounds and storage
Many tow companies can store vehicles that have been wrecked or impounded by police agencies. In these circumstances, police agencies notify a contracted towing provider to secure the vehicle and tow it to a storage lot. The tow company will sometimes prevent access to the vehicle until the law states the owner can claim it (usually after any fines are paid). Some local governments operate their own towing and impound lots, and don’t need a contracted provider.
Nearly all tow companies charge a fee for storing vehicles.
GPS and AVL
Navigation systems are becoming more commonly used to tell the location (of stranded vehicles) to tow trucks. Automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems are sometimes used to help the dispatch center staff determine the closest tow truck. AVL may use GPS technology. It may display the location of all tow trucks on a map or may feed data directly to a computer-assisted dispatchsystem which automatically recommends the closest available units.
Leyes y regulación del servicio de grúas para vehículos
This section refers specifically to the laws of various countries regarding the towing of a car or truck by a specialty wrecker or tow truck.
The towing industry is known to have substantial potential for abuse, as towing most often occurs in difficult situations, without many options for the consumer to turn to. IN addition, in certain situations, towing operators may initiate a towing procedure that is unwarranted, and the consumer may be forced to make a payment to the operator before the vehicle is released. Various consumer citizen protection laws have been enacted by many jurisdictions to protect the consumer for predatory towing or predatory towing charges.
Other laws may govern training and licensing of tow truck operators and businesses, safety equipment, safe practices, and special permits for operating on certain roadways or in certain areas.
Leyes y regulaciones del servicio de grúas en México.
En México several states have laws that regulate the circumstances under which a car may be towed. Some of these laws are designed to prevent “predatory towing” whereby a legally parked vehicle is towed — or an illegally parked vehicle is towed by a towing operator unaffiliated with the parking facility (private or public) — in order to charge high fees from the owner. Even when the predatory tow is stopped, if the vehicle is already hooked up to the tow truck in any fashion, the car is essentially disabled until the operator releases it, and the operator can therefore extort money from the consumer.
Even where towing is performed legally, and even with the consumer’s request for a tow, the towing company gains physical possession of the vehicle. The towing fees may be unexpectedly high in the absence of regulation.
In some jurisdictions, kidnapping laws may ban the towing of occupied vehicles.
Servicio de grúas en la Ciudad de México, Distrito Federal o DF
California law requires the tow company to immediately and unconditionally release a vehicle if the driver arrives prior to it being towed from the private property and in transit. The intent was to avoid the likelihood of dangerous and violent confrontation and physical injury to vehicle owners and towing operators, the stranding of vehicle owners and their passengers at a dangerous time and location, and impeding expedited vehicle recovery, without wasting law enforcement’s limited resources.
Some limited access highways, especially the Garden State Parkway and the New Jersey Turnpike, require specially designated towing businesses to be the only tow operators on them. This is to allow for better traffic flow and safety, as not all tow operators are familiar with the roads, access points and turnaround points, road construction quirks, and methods to quickly and safely remove disabled cars from the roadway. There is also the concern of arrival delay; the roadway authorities wish to avoid out of area tow companies, as the delay for arriving from far away increases the length of traffic delays in time and distance.
Oregon law requires that the tower release a vehicle at no charge only if the driver is present prior to the hookup being complete. The tower must also take at least one photograph of the vehicle and record the time and date of the photograph. The photograph must show the vehicle violation taking place.
Virginia and its municipalities have enacted anti-“predatory towing” legislation. Some features of the legislation include the requirement to post warning signs at all entrances, setting maximum fees for towing and storage, and requiring photographs to be taken before towing to show the condition of the vehicle as well as the lawfulness of the towing.
Towing law in México
All Australian States have laws which regulate the towing industry, particularly that part of the industry engaged in towing light and heavy vehicles involved in road accidents.
The Tow Truck Regulation 2009 is the legislation in State of Queensland which governs smash/accident towing; in regulated areas of the state. The scheme sets economic, occupational and general consumer protection controls over the accident towing industry.
In April 2013, the Queensland Government approved amendments to the Police Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000 , regarding motor vehicle impoundment with the aim of improving road safety.
On November 1, 2013, State of Queensland the amended legislation commenced as the countries toughest anti-hooning laws.
From May 1, 2014, Australian towing company Tow.com.au was contracted by the Queensland Police Service as the exclusive provider of towing & impoundment relating to hoon type 1 & type 2 offences in State of Queensland.
The Accident Towing Services Act is the prime towing industry statute in the State of Victoria. The scheme sets economic, occupational and general consumer protection controls over the accident towing industry. First, the statute restricts the number of accident towing vehicles across the State and also contains a scheme regulating the orderly allocation of tow trucks to road accident sites. Second, the Act sets mimimum standards on the character of industry participants and also regulates the behaviour of participants once they enter the industry.
The framework of offences in the Act broadly seeks to give practical effect to the “chain of responsibility” concept in the accident towing sector. The concept seeks to identify the industry parties who are in a sufficient position of control over risks, in this case potentially unsafe and unethical conduct following road accidents, and to allocate responsibility through law accordingly in order to deter and punish those behaviours.
The behavioural controls in the Act cover a wide range of activities and practices including the allocation of tow trucks to accident sites in “controlled areas” and conduct at road accident sites and during post accident repair work. The scheme was broadly prompted by consumer protection sentiment, in particular, the recognition of the vulnerability of road accident victims. Care was evident during development of the scheme to maintain and enhance existing character standards in the sector due to past behavioural issues in Victoria including the infiltration of criminal elements into some areas and conflict at accident scenes.
- establishing a licensing scheme for the tow trucks which provide accident towing services
- requiring the accreditation of operators of accident towing service businesses and managers of the depots from which accident tow trucks operate
- requiring the accreditation of accident tow truck drivers
- establishing requirements and protections relating to the storage and repair of motor vehicles following road accidents.
Towing law in the European Union
As of the 1st of August 1998 all Passenger Carrying Vehicles up to 3500 kg Gross Vehicle Weight (M1 Vehicles) can only be fitted with European Type Approved towbars if the vehicle has received European Whole Vehicle Type Approval. Non M1 vehicles, Light Commercial Vehicles and private imports from outside the EEC are not required to use Approved Towbars.